The Mitral valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle. The valve regulates incoming blood from the lungs, supporting healthy flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle during diastole and preventing back flow from the left ventricle to the left atrium during systole.
Mitral valve diseases can cause blood leakage which flows backward through the mitral valve during left ventricle contraction. This condition is known as Mitral Regurgitation or MR.
Primary MR is caused by abnormalities of the valve components such as leaflet prolapse, chordal rupture and flail, that can lead to inadequate leaflets coaptation.
Secondary MR is caused by heart muscle dysfunction that prevents proper coaptation of the leaflets.